In December 2005 Jeremy was appointed Shadow Minister for Disabled People, where he successfully campaigned for the BBC to increase the amount of subtitling on its programmes. He also campaigned strongly for simplification of the benefits system for disabled people and individual social care budgets.

In July 2007 he was appointed to the Shadow Cabinet as Shadow Secretary of State for Culture Media and Sport where he has campaigned for more philanthropy for the arts, local TV, superfast broadband, a schools Olympics and a strengthened domestic tourism industry.

In May 2010 Jeremy was appointed Secretary of State for Culture, Olympics, Media and Sport in the new Conservative – Liberal Democrat coalition. From September 2012 to July 2018, Jeremy held the position of Secretary of State for Health. He was reappointed in the role in January 2018 with the added responsibility of Social Care. In June 2018, Jeremy became the longest serving Secretary of State for Health in British history.

In July 2018, Jeremy was appointed Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, a position he held until July 2019.

In January 2020, Jeremy was elected Chair of the Health and Social Care Select Committee with cross-party support.